Hampshire – Water Borehole Drilling and Groundwater Maps

Groundwater Map – Hampshire

As an installer of ground source heating and water boreholes, we find it interesting to look at water tables throughout the UK. This week we look at groundwater in Hampshire, UK.

Groundwater Map of Hampshire - Water Well Drilling in Hampshire

Groundwater Map of Hampshire – Source: Environment Agency

What are Groundwater Source Protection Zones?

Groundwater provides a third of our drinking water in England and Wales, and it also maintains the flow in many of our rivers. In some areas of Southern England, like Hampshire, groundwater supplies up to 80% of the drinking water that you get through your taps. It is crucial that we look after these sources and ensure that your water is completely safe to drink.
The UK Environment Agency has defined Source Protection Zones (SPZs) for 2000 groundwater sources such as wells, boreholes and springs used for public drinking water supply. These zones show the risk of contamination from any activities that might cause pollution in the area. The closer the activity, the greater the risk. The maps show three main zones (inner, outer and total catchment) and a fourth zone of special interest, which we occasionally apply, to a groundwater source.

The agency uses zones in conjunction with our Groundwater Protection Policy to set up pollution prevention measures in areas which are at a higher risk, and to monitor the activities of potential polluters nearby.

You can read more and search for maps of your own area here.

Installing Water Wells (Water Boreholes) in Hampshire

The geology in Hampshire serves itself well to the drilling of water boreholes ( water wells).

We offer a turn-key solution that covers not just the technical aspects such as borehole prognosis, but also every requirement typical of any large commercial water borehole project:

  • Insurance
  • Health and Safety
  • Project Management

If you would like to talk to us about your project, we are happy to give no obligation advice. Visit our website, use the contact form, or call us on 01246 743022

Thanks for reading!

Jenny Hormell
Director
Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd.

Posted in Commercial, Water Boreholes, Water Supply, Water Wells | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

February Update

Well Drilling NEWS

Waterseekers  secures the following for early 2015:

Commercial Water Borehole Drilling - Hampshire

Commercial Water Borehole Drilling – Hampshire

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BARNSLEY FOOTBALL CLUB – November 2014

Waterseekers WDS Ltd (a waterwell drilling company) were contacted by the club to investigate the potential of abstracting water from a borehole for irrigation purposes.

Initial survey suggested possible workings at various depths and a High possibility of Iron within the underlying Geology.barnsley_football_club1

Considering all there options the club decided to progress with the works.

We commenced drilling utilizing mud flushing down to 41m diameter 305mm. Flushing was lost through broken ground/suspected workings. A 219mm casing was installed to 46m and pressure grouted in place, allowing drilling to progress to the target aquifer at 80m.

Gas monitoring equipment was utilized through out the operation

barnsley_football_club2The club required a water flow of 4 meter cubed per hr for 24hrs at Peak times through out the summer. The Borehole was test Pumped at 8m3 per hr with no depression in the Borehole.

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ESSEX SAFETY GLASS – Project 2

October 2014

After the successfull installation of a Borehole at there 1st glass production facility and within 4 month Essex Safety Glass commissioned WSWDS Limited to drill a identical Borehole for there second facility half a mile up the road.

Commercial Water Borehole Drilling - Essex Glass Factory

Commercial Water Borehole Drilling – Essex Glass Factory

Again this Borehole finished approx 50m into the chalk and provided a conciderable amount of good quality water .

Both sites are full operational and self sufficient as regards there water.

Posted in Commercial, News, Water Wells | 1 Comment

ESSEX SAFETY GLASS – Project 1

Commercial Water Borehole Drilling – Essex Glass Factory  - July 2014

After spending time and money on re cycling the water used in their glass production facility in Essex, Essex Safety Glass then looked at reducing their escalating costs for mains water.  WSWDS were drafted in to advise them on a Borehole solution.

Firstly we provided them with a detailed cost analysis proving a payback of 12months. Then we carried out a feasibility study of the Geology and Hydrology to see if underlying geology/aquifer would yield the amount of good quality water that was required by the facility.

Commercial Water Borehole Drilling - Essex Glass Factory

Commercial Water Borehole Drilling – Essex Glass Factory

Based on the feasibility report WSWDS were then commission to drill a Borehole through the riverbed terraces, London Clay and into the Chalk water bearing strata.

The first River bed terrace at 20m was cased off and back grouted allowing us to drill on through the London Clay and Thanet sands to 95m again this was cased & grouted of to allow us to progress through the Chalk.

Final depth of the Borehole was 140m and yielded considerable amounts of good quality water.

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Design and Installation of Water Boreholes for Agricultural Farming Irrigation Systems – Part III

Welcome to Part III of a series of articles about the design and installation of water boreholes (water wells) for Agricultural Irrigation Systems. In Part III we complete our look at the various activities that make up the design and construction of a water borehole. Please read Part II first.

Just to recap, in Part I we looked at why water wells are important to the supply of a reliable source of water for farm irrigation, the importance of determining the correct well location, the key component parts of a working water borehole, and finally we looked at some definitions that will be used in this article.

Water Well Design and Construction of Agricultural (Farming) Irrigation Systems

Water Borehole Design & Construction (Continued from Part II)

Well Screen

Commercially manufactured quality well screen should be used for the wells. The well screen should have an efficient design. A well screen is considered adequate when it allows ample sand-free water to flow into the well with minimum hydraulic head loss. A properly designed well screen should have close spacing of slot openings to provide uniform open area distribution, maximum open area per foot of length, V-shaped slot openings that widen inwardly, corrosion resistance, and ample strength to resist external forces to which the screen may be subjected during and after installation. Screens with tapered slots provide hydraulic efficiency and offer self-cleaning properties. Sand grains smaller than the screen opening are easily brought into the well in the development process, while large grains are retained outside.

Screen length is an important design consideration. A screen that is too short seriously affects the efficiency of the well, whereas a well screen that is too long causes problems such as cascading water, entrained air, and accelerated corrosion and/or incrustation. The optimum length of well screen is chosen with relation to the thickness of the aquifer, available drawdown, and stratification of the aquifer.

In an artesian aquifer, the lower 70% to 80% of the thickness of the water-bearing sand should be screened, assuming the pumping level is not expected to be below the top of the aquifer. It is generally not necessary to screen the entire thickness of artesian aquifers. About 90% of the maximum specific capacity can be obtained by screening only 75% of an artesian aquifer. An exception to this rule should be made when the aquifer is highly stratified and interbedded with low permeability layers. In this case, all of the aquifer may need to be screened.

Optimum design practice dictates that the maximum available drawdown in an artesian well should be the distance from the static water level to the top of the aquifer. If it is necessary to lower the pumping level below the top of the aquifer to obtain greater yield, the screen length should be shortened and the screen should be set at the bottom of the aquifer. Attempts should be made to design and construct the well so that the pumping level stays above the top of the uppermost well screen.

For water table wells, selection of screen length is something of a compromise between two factors. While high specific capacity is obtained by using as long a screen as possible, short screens provide more available drawdown. These two conflicting aims are satisfied, in part, by using an efficient well screen. Available drawdown in a water table well is the distance between the static water level and the top of the screen. Screening the bottom 1/3 to 2/3 of the aquifer normally provides the optimum design.

Gravel Pack

Gravel-packed wells are particularly well suited to some geologic environments, but gravel packing is not a cure-all for every sand condition. Gravel pack construction is recommended:

  • in aquifers consisting of fine sand
  • in loosely cemented sandstone formations
  • in extensively stratified formations consisting of alternating layers of fine and coarse sediments or thin silt and clay layers.

Gravel packing makes the zone immediately surrounding the well screen more permeable by removing the formation materials and replacing them with artificially graded coarser materials (Figure 1). The size of this artificially graded gravel should be chosen so that it retains essentially all of the formation particles. The well screen slot opening size is then selected to retain the gravel pack.

Differences in gravel pack for naturally developed well (left) and artificial gravel pack (right).

Fig 1. Differences in gravel pack for naturally developed well (left) and artificial gravel pack (right).

Gravel pack design includes specification of gradation, thickness, and quality of the gravel pack material. Part of the aquifer thickness to be screened should be evaluated by examining the samples collected during the test hole drilling. Plain casing should be set in intervals with unfavorable strata (e.g., finest sands) of the aquifer. It may be necessary to place plain (unslotted) casing between screen sections that are positioned in the best strata of the aquifer. One advantage of placing plain casing against strata composed of the finest sands and low permeability intervals is that a coarser gravel pack can be utilized. The coarser pack will allow the coarser strata of the water-bearing formation to yield maximum water. Little potential yield will be lost by setting plain casing opposite the finest sands and other low permeability strata because these layers produce little water.

A sieve analysis should be prepared for the strata comprising the portion of the aquifer where the screen will be set. Results of sieve analysis for the finest stratum should be used to design the gravel pack grading. It is best to design as uniform a pack as possible. A uniform gravel pack has significantly greater permeability and is easier to install without segregation. The gravel pack material should consist of clean and well-rounded grains that are smooth. These characteristics increase the permeability and porosity of the gravel pack. In addition, the particles should consist of siliceous (quartz) rather than calcareous material. The calcareous material should be limited to less than 5 percent.

To ensure that an envelope of gravel will surround the entire screen, a thickness of 3 to 8 inches is recommended. This thickness will successfully retain formation particles regardless of how high the water velocity tends to carry the particles through the gravel pack. When more than 8 inches of gravel pack is provided, development of the aquifer is hampered. A thicker envelope does not significantly increase the yield of the well and does little to control sand pumping because the controlling factor is the ratio of the grain size of the pack material to the formation material. To ensure that the envelope of gravel completely surrounds the entire screen, centering guides should be used to center the screen in the borehole.

The pack material should be placed continuously, but slowly, to avoid bridging and sorting of the particles. If the screen is not centered in the bore hole and is in direct contact with the formation material (no gravel pack between the well screen and formation), sand pumping will result.

Slot Openings

The gravel pack retains the water-bearing formation, while the well screen retains the gravel pack particles. In a gravel-packed well, the size of the screen slot is selected to retain 90% or more of the gravel pack material. For the sand sieve analysis in Figure 3, the proper size screen in a gravel-packed well would have a slot opening of 0.015 inch to retain 90% of the material in the water-bearing strata.

For naturally developed wells, the size(s) of well screen slot openings will depend on the gradation of the sand, and slot openings are selected using the results of sieve analyses of water-bearing formation samples. A sieve analysis curve, such as shown in Figure 4, is plotted for each sand sample. The size of the screen opening is selected so that the screen will retain 40-50% of the sand. The remaining 50-60% of the sand particles will pass through the openings during development. If the formation is heterogeneous, it may be necessary to select various sizes of slot openings for different sections of the well screen. The use of a multiple-slot screen to custom fit the gradation of each stratum will assist in attaining the highest specific capacity possible, and will greatly reduce the possibility of pumping sand with the water.

The screen opening size that retains 40% of the particles is usually chosen when the groundwater is not particularly corrosive and when there is little doubt as to the quality of the formation samples. For example, a slot size of 0.050 inch would provide 40% retention of the materials in the water-bearing strata (Figure 4). The screen opening size that retains 50% of the sand is chosen if the water is corrosive or if the reliability of the sample is in question. If the water is corrosive, enlargement of the openings of only a few thousandths of an inch due to corrosion could cause the well to pump sand. If the water is encrusting, a size that retains 30% of particles may be selected. When this larger slot opening is selected, longer well life can be expected before plugging reduces the well yield. Large slot size also makes it possible to develop a larger area of the formation surrounding the screen. This generally increases the specific capacity of the well by increasing the well efficiency.

Screen Diameter

One important consideration that must be kept in mind when selecting the screen diameter is that the diameter can be varied without greatly affecting the well yield. Doubling the diameter of the well screen can be expected to increase the well yield by only about 10%. Screen diameter can be varied after the length of the screen and size of the screen openings have been selected. Screen diameter is selected to provide enough total area of screen openings so that the average entrance velocity of the water through the slot openings does not exceed the design standard of 0.1 feet per second (3 cm/sec). A quality well screen with maximum open area offers a decided cost advantage when different types of screening devices are compared at this entrance velocity.

The entrance velocity (V) is calculated by dividing the expected or desired yield (Y) of the well by the total area (A) of openings in the screen (V = Y/A). If the velocity is greater than 0.1 foot per second, the diameter should be increased. If the calculated entrance velocity is less than 0.1 foot per second, the screen diameter may be reduced. However, the screen diameter should not be reduced to the point that the velocity of vertical water flow to the pump exceeds 5.0 feet per second. Laboratory tests and field experience show that if the screen entrance velocity is equal to or less than 0.1 foot per second, the friction loss through the screen openings is negligible, resulting in a higher well efficiency.

Open Area

The percentage of open area of the screen should be equal to or greater than the porosity of the sand and gravel in the water-bearing formation and artificial gravel pack supported by the screen. Where the irrigation well screening device provides only 2% to 5% open area, as in perforated pipe, flow restrictions are unavoidable. This is one of the most common reasons for low efficiencies of irrigation wells. Suppose that the water-bearing sand has 30% porosity (voids) and the screening device installed has only 5% open area. With such a small open area, there will be constriction of flow. As a result, there will be additional drawdown caused by increased head loss as water moves toward and into the well.

Adequate open area should be provided by the well screen to allow the desired or design yield to enter the well at velocity of 0.1 foot per second. This hydraulic characteristic of the screen is known as transmitting capacity. If the amount of open area of a screen is known, and the recommended entrance velocity of 0.1 foot per second is used, the transmitting capacity of that screen can be readily calculated. For example, a 16-inch diameter well screen of continuous slot construction with 175 square inches (1.22 square feet) of open area per linear foot of screen can transmit 55 gpm per foot of screen body at an entrance velocity of 0.1 foot per second (Y = V × A = 0.1ft/sec × 1.22 ft2 = 0.122 ft3/sec = 54.8 gpm. This amount is generally halved to allow for blockage of the screen openings by the gravel pack to arrive at a well yield per foot of screen. Note that the transmitting capacity of a screen is a hydraulic characteristic of that screen and not a measure of the yielding capability of the water-bearing formation in which the screen is installed.

Screen Material

Depending on the results of preliminary investigation, the well screen should be fabricated of materials that are as corrosion resistant as necessary. If the screen corrodes, sand and/or gravel will enter the well, which may eventually require either replacement of screen or drilling a new well.

Corrosion of screens can occur from bimetallic corrosion if two different metals have been used in the fabrication; therefore, bimetallic screen should always be avoided. Water with high total dissolved solids accelerates this type of corrosion because the water is a more effective electrolyte. Corrosion can also occur from dissolved gases in the water such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide.

Well plugging by the deposits of incrustation is a common problem. Such deposits plug the screen openings and the formation and/or gravel pack immediately surrounding the well screen. When incrustation is a problem, acid treatments can be used. Therefore, corrosion-resistant material should always be used to resist the attack of strong acids introduced into the well screen during treatment.

Corrosion and incrustation can occur simultaneously in some groundwater environments. The products of corrosion can relocate themselves on the screen and form incrustations that plug the screen openings much like waters which are naturally incrusting. Removal of these deposits often requires strong acids.

The choice of the well screen material is sometimes based on strength requirements regarding column load and collapse pressure. When a long screen supports a considerable weight of pipe, it functions as a slender column. The pressure of the formation and materials caving into the well pipe can squeeze the screen. Therefore, the well material should be able to withstand the pressure. It is impossible to accurately determine or calculate earth pressures with depth but generally greater strength is needed at greater depths.

Well screens can be constructed of materials which are especially adapted to resist the corrosive attack of aggressive waters and acids. Stainless steel offers the maximum in corrosion resistance for most fresh groundwater environments and it also provides good strength. Galvanized steel is suitable for many irrigation wells where the water environment is not corrosive. It provides strength comparable to stainless steel. PVC well screens are resistant to corrosion and are often used in shallow wells. However, only limited open area can be provided and still maintain strength requirements. Therefore, non-metallic well screens are not usually adequate for deep irrigation wells.

Too Much Detail?

That’s probably enough for this week. Remember, you don’t have to know anything about the detailed installation of a water borehole, since we have it all covered, but it does make interesting reading to some.

Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd has over 50 years experience of commercial water well installations for agricultural and industrial usage. You dont have to know about the above definitions because we undertake the Borehole Prognosis for you.

Commercial Water Borehole Turn Key Solutions

We offer a turn-key solution that covers not just the technical aspects such as borehole prognosis, but also every requirement typical of any large commercial water borehole project:

  • Insurance
  • Health and Safety
  • Project Management

If you would like to talk to us about your project, we are happy to give no obligation advice. Visit our website, use the contact form, or call us on 01246 743022

In Part IV, we will look at Water Borehole development, testing and potential problems.

Thanks for reading!

Jenny Hormell
Director
Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd.

Posted in Commercial, Farming, Water Boreholes, Water Wells | Leave a comment

Design and Installation of Water Boreholes for Agricultural Farming Irrigation Systems – Part II

Welcome to Part II of a series of articles about the design and installation of water boreholes (water wells) for Agricultural Irrigation Systems. In Part II we start to look at the various activities that make up the design and construction of a water borehole.

In Part I we looked at why water wells are important to the supply of a reliable source of water for farm irrigation, the importance of determining the correct well location, the key component parts of a working water borehole, and finally we looked at some definitions that will be used in this article.

Water Well Design and Construction of Agricultural (Farming) Irrigation Systems

Preliminary Investigation

The National Ground Water Association (UK)

The preliminary investigation is the foundation upon which a well design depends. An examination of records from existing wells in the area should be made to determine yield, depth, and characteristics of the aquifers presently being used. Consultation should be made the National Ground Water Association which will be able to provide sufficient geologic data to help select the best well design with regards to water supply and construction cost.

Water Borehole Test Drilling

If sufficient records are unavailable, test holes should be drilled to determine the water borehole drilling location with the best water production potential and to help formulate the production well design for the selected site. The information gained from test holes usually justifies the investment. In drilling test holes, samples of the aquifer should be collected so that permeability tests can be made. From the completed test holes, the well designer should determine:

  • aquifer thickness
  • aquifer depth
  • static water level of the aquifer
  • estimate the yield and specific capacity of a full-sized production well.

A water sample should be collected and analysed to determine the corrosion and/or incrustation characteristics of the water.

Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd has over 50 years experience of commercial water well installations for agricultural and industrial usage. Please visit our main website and get in touch. We are always happy to advice you on your project.

Water Borehole Design Procedure

After the preliminary investigation and site selection, a well design can be selected which best utilizes the hydro-geological conditions present at the site. The cased portion of the well should be designed first, and then the intake portion of the well. The cased portion of the well consists of the well casing that serves as both a housing for the pump and as a vertical conduit through which water flows upward from the intake portion of the well to the level where it enters the pump (Figure 1). The casing (or well pipe) is a very critical element in well construction. Casing may be metallic (black iron or galvanized steel) or non-metallic (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or ABS plastic). It must be adequately seated in a consolidated formation (limestone, sandstone, etc.) or attached to a screen suitably designed and situated in unconsolidated materials (shell, sand, gravel, etc.). The purpose of casing is to seal off materials that may enter the pumping system from strata other than the aquifer selected and prevent mixing between aquifers. To prevent contamination from surface flow into the well, the casing must be extended above surface flood water levels, and the top portion must be grouted with cement or an approved alternative material.

Figure 1. Diagram showing . the components of a gravel-packed well.

Figure 1. Diagram showing . the components of a gravel-packed well.

Casings are sealed in place with grout which protects against contamination by pollutants from the surface and acts as a seal for the casing seated into a consolidated formation. In areas where the beds of consolidated material that the casing is seated into are friable (crumble easily), the grout also helps to prevent deterioration of the casing seat (casing shoe) due to turbulence developed during pumping. Poor grouting may create problems later as pump impellers and other mechanical parts are scoured by small particles moving into the well around the casing shoe. Poor grouting may also create voids where eventual corrosion of the casing wall allows unconsolidated matter to enter the well.

Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd has over 50 years experience of commercial water well installations for agricultural and industrial usage. Please visit our main website and get in touch. We are always happy to advice you on your project.

The well should be of sufficient diameter to allow the ascending water to move at a velocity of 5.0 feet per second or less up the well casing. Data from the preliminary investigation and chemical analyses of water samples should be reviewed to determine if the water is corrosive or encrusting. When necessary, extra heavy steel casing should be installed. In cases of severe corrosive water, stainless steel, PVC, or fiberglass casing should be used.

The capacity of individual wells is highly variable from location to location. Average estimates of expected capacities for various size wells are given in Table 1. Although Table 1 can serve as a general guideline, the specific capacity depends on the yield characteristics of the water-bearing formation and the design of the well. The overall installation must be carefully evaluated. For instance, although 1,000 gpm may be obtained from a 10-inch pump with reasonably good efficiency, the life cycle cost of a 12-inch pump installation may be less, even including the higher cost of the larger well.

The Water Well Screen

Commercially manufactured quality well screen should be used for the wells. The well screen should have an efficient design. A well screen is considered adequate when it allows ample sand-free water to flow into the well with minimum hydraulic head loss. A properly designed well screen should have close spacing of slot openings to provide uniform open area distribution, maximum open area per foot of length, V-shaped slot openings that widen inwardly, corrosion resistance, and ample strength to resist external forces to which the screen may be subjected during and after installation. Screens with tapered slots provide hydraulic efficiency and offer self-cleaning properties. Sand grains smaller than the screen opening are easily brought into the well in the development process, while large grains are retained outside.

Screen length is an important design consideration. A screen that is too short seriously affects the efficiency of the well, whereas a well screen that is too long causes problems such as cascading water, entrained air, and accelerated corrosion and/or incrustation. The optimum length of well screen is chosen with relation to the thickness of the aquifer, available drawdown, and stratification of the aquifer.

In an artesian aquifer, the lower 70% to 80% of the thickness of the water-bearing sand should be screened, assuming the pumping level is not expected to be below the top of the aquifer. It is generally not necessary to screen the entire thickness of artesian aquifers. About 90% of the maximum specific capacity can be obtained by screening only 75% of an artesian aquifer. An exception to this rule should be made when the aquifer is highly stratified and interbedded with low permeability layers. In this case, all of the aquifer may need to be screened.

Optimum design practice dictates that the maximum available drawdown in an artesian well should be the distance from the static water level to the top of the aquifer. If it is necessary to lower the pumping level below the top of the aquifer to obtain greater yield, the screen length should be shortened and the screen should be set at the bottom of the aquifer. Attempts should be made to design and construct the well so that the pumping level stays above the top of the uppermost well screen.

For water table wells, selection of screen length is something of a compromise between two factors. While high specific capacity is obtained by using as long a screen as possible, short screens provide more available drawdown. These two conflicting aims are satisfied, in part, by using an efficient well screen. Available drawdown in a water table well is the distance between the static water level and the top of the screen. Screening the bottom 1/3 to 2/3 of the aquifer normally provides the optimum design.

That’s it for probably enough for this week. Remember, you don’t have to know anything about the detailed installation of a water borehole, since we have it all covered, but it does make interesting reading to some.

Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd has over 50 years experience of commercial water well installations for agricultural and industrial usage. You dont have to know about the above definitions becasue we undertake the Borehole Prognosis for you.

Commercial Water Borehole Turn Key Solutions

We offer a turn-key solution that covers not just the technical aspects such as borehole prognosis, but also every requirement typical of any large commercial water borehole project:

  • Insurance
  • Health and Safety
  • Project Management

If you would like to talk to us about your project, we are happy to give no obligation advice. Visit our website, use the contact form, or call us on 01246 743022

In Part III, we will continue to expand on Water Well Design and Build.

Thanks for reading!

Jenny Hormell
Director
Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd.

Posted in Commercial, Farming, Licensing, Water Boreholes, Water Supply, Water Wells | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Design and Installation of Screened Water Boreholes for Agricultural Irrigation Systems – Part I

Introduction

Irrigation water wells (water boreholes) must be capable of producing adequate water during peak seasonal use and under drought conditions. Without a reliable, efficient, and economical supply of water, the entire irrigation system, regardless of the most sophisticated well head equipment design, is renderedf useless. The water well is the “heart” of irrigation systems with groundwater supplies; it must be properly designed and compatible with the water pump and distribution system to ensure long life, efficiency, and economic operation.

Commercial Water Borehole Installation - Essex Glass Factory 2014

Commercial Water Borehole Installation – Essex Glass Factory 2014

Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd has over 50 years experience of commercial water well installations for agricultural and industrial usage. Please visit our main website and get in touch. We are always happy to advice you on your project.

The potential ground water sources of irrigation water in Northern England include the surficial, intermediate aquifer systems. The choice of aquifer is often dictated by location. It also depends on the quantity and quality of water desired. The cavernous nature of Yorkshire’s limestone formations produces abundant quantities of water from open bore holes (generally 4-12 inches in diameter) constructed into the limestone. In some areas of Yorkshire, the depth of bore holes may be limited due to increases of salinity with depth. If well yield is too low, additional properly spaced wells may be required. Back-plugging of some irrigation wells has been successful as a remedy against upcoming deep saline waters.

A well consists of many or all of the following key parts:

  • casing
  • grout
  • screen
  • open bore hole
  • well head configuration.

Water well construction in the UK is regulated by the National Ground Water Association address each of these parts with alternatives given to account for variation in geology in various areas.

The local water authority should be contacted to obtain an abstraction license and information on well specifications. In most cases, the National Ground Water Association will be able to provide sufficient geologic data to help select the best well design with regards to water supply and construction cost. The well drilling contractor should be licensed and have experience in the construction of screened irrigation wells.

Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd has over 50 years experience of commercial water well installations for agricultural and industrial usage. Please visit our main website and get in touch. We are always happy to advice you on your project.

Definitions

Drawdown

The depth by which the water level is lowered below the static level in a well when pumping is in progress is called drawdown. Drawdown is the difference, measured in feet of water, between the static water level and the water level during pumping. This term represents the hydraulic head, in feet of water, that is needed to cause water to flow through the aquifer toward and into the well at the rate that water is being removed from the well.

Gravel-Packed Well

Gravel-packed wells have a bore hole through the water-bearing formation that is larger in diameter than the well screen. The zone immediately surrounding the well screen is made more permeable than the aquifer by filling the space between the face of the bore hole and well screen with graded sand or gravel that is coarser than the formation.

Naturally Developed Well

A well in which the well screen is placed directly in contact with the water-bearing sand and gravel is a naturally developed well. The width of the openings in the screen is selected so that fine sand in the aquifer immediately surrounding the screen can be removed by pumping during development to create a highly permeable zone consisting of the coarser formation particles.

Specific Capacity

The yield of the well per unit of drawdown, usually expressed as gallons per minute (gpm) per foot of drawdown, is called specific capacity. It is obtained by dividing the pumping rate by the drawdown for a specific pumping period. For example, if the pumping rate is 1500 gpm and the drawdown is 20 feet, the specific capacity of the well is 75 gpm per foot of drawdown.

Well Capacity or Yield

The volume of water per unit of time discharged from a well is its capacity. Well capacity is usually measured as the pumping rate in gallons per minute (gpm) or cubic feet per second (cfs).

Static Water Level

This is the level at which water stands in a well when no water is being removed from the well either by pumping or natural flow. It is generally expressed as the distance from the ground surface (or from a measuring point near the ground surface) to the water level in the well. The level to which the water level rises in a well that taps an artesian aquifer is also referred to as the piezometric level. An imaginary surface representing the artesian pressure or hydraulic head throughout all or part of an artesian aquifer is called the piezometric surface. The piezometric surface is the real water surface, or the water table, in a water table aquifer. The artesian aquifer is different from the water table aquifer in that the saturated zone is confined by the confining layers or aquicludes.

Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd has over 50 years experience of commercial water well installations for agricultural and industrial usage. You dont have to know about the above definitions becasue we undertake the Borehole Prognosis for you.

Commercial Water Borehole Turn Key Solutions

We offer a turn-key solution that covers not just the technical aspects such as borehole prognosis, but also every requirement typical of any large commercial water borehole project:

  • Insurance
  • Health and Safety
  • Project Management

If you would like to talk to us about your project, we are happy to give no obligation advice. Visit our website, use the contact form, or call us on 01246 743022

In Part II, we will be expanding on Water Well Design and Build and Water Well Development.

Thanks for reading!

Jenny Hormell,Director, Waterseekers Well Drilling Services Ltd

Posted in Commercial, Farming, Licensing, Water Boreholes, Water Wells | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Quotes About Water…That Make You Think

This week we thought we would take a lighter, and wider look at the nature of water. We’ve collected a number of quotes that use the idea of water to make us think….

“Filthy water cannot be washed.”- West African Proverb

“When the well’s dry, we know the worth of water.”- Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), Poor Richard’s Almanac, 1746 

water-well-for-free-water

“Water is the driving force of all nature.”
 - Leonardo da Vinci

“Water is precious; it is the very source of life and a free gift from the Creator.”
- Desmond M. Tutu

“Mind is just like water. When agitated, it is difficult to see what lies beneath. When settled, the answers come to the surface.”

“Stop watering the weeds in your life, and start watering the flowers.”

“Anyone who can solve the problems of water will be worthy of two Nobel prizes – one for peace and one for science.”
- John F. Kennedy 

“The grass is greener, where you water it.”

The world in a drop of water from a water well.

The world in a drop of water from a water well.

“In every glass of water we drink, some of the water has already passed through fishes, trees, bacteria, worms in the soil, and many other organisms, including people. . .Living systems cleanse water and make it fit, among other things, for human consumption.” - Elliot A. Norse, in R.J. Hoage, ed., Animal Extinctions, 1985


“Remember the tea kettle – it is always up to its neck in hot water, yet it still sings.”

“If you want a free, clean, and reliable supply of water, have a water well installed on your property.”
- Jenny Hormell, MD of Waterseekers Water Well Drilling Company Ltd

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Installing A Water Well Can Improve Your Health

Filtered Tap Water – Making a Start

The most obvious choice you and your family can make is to purchase and install a water filter for your home. There are three different types of water filters. Let’s take a brief look below.

Reverse Osmosis Filter

In addition to removing chlorine, inorganic, and organic contaminants in your water, an RO filter will also remove about 80 percent of the fluoride and most DPBs.

Ion Exchange Filter

Ion exchange is designed to remove dissolved salts in the water, such as calcium. This system actually softens the water or exchanges natural-forming mineral ions in the water with its own ions, thereby neutralizing their harmful effect of creating scale build-up.

The ion exchange system was originally used in boilers and other industrial situations before becoming popular in home purifying units, which usually combine the system with carbon for greater effectiveness.

Granular Carbon and Carbon Block Filters

These are the most common types of counter top and under counter water filters.

Granular carbon filters and carbon block systems perform the same process of contaminant removal, adsorption, which is the chemical or physical bond of a contaminant to the surface of the filter media.

Granular activated carbon is recognized by the EPA as the best available technology for the removal of organic chemicals like herbicides, pesticides and industrial chemicals. However, one of the downfalls of granular carbon filters is that the loose material inside can channel–the water creates pathways through the carbon material, escaping filtering.

Carbon block filters offer the same superior filtering ability but are compressed with the carbon medium in a solid form. This eliminates channeling and gives the ability to precisely combine multiple media in a sub-micron filter cartridge. By combining different media, the ability to selectively remove a wide range of contaminants can be achieved.

Ideally, you want a filtration system that offers a variety of methods to remove different contaminants. Most systems do not address a combination of organic, inorganic, cyst, sediment and metals.

Install Your Own Water Well!

One other rising trend is to have a water well installed on your property. Typically a water borehole is drilled between 20 to 60m deep. By doing this you literally tap into a water table.

These water wells are springing up (excuse the pun) all over the country as health aware consumers are becoming increasingly dissatisfied with municipal supplies and expensive bottled water.

The majority of time the well water is safe to drink. The water is always sent to the lab for testing and advice given on the appropriate treatment. In 90% of cases, UV and Carbon filtration is good enough.

Waterseekers Logo

Waterseekers Water Well Drilling for Private & Commercial Projects.

If you’re interested in what it takes to install your own water well, check out Waterseekers, who provide water well installations tailor-made to the unique requirements of each client. They offer a complete water well installation service, which covers all aspects of borehole design, drilling, ground work and pump installation giving you a limitless supply of clean water for your business or home.

Living Water from a Spring

In choosing the right type of water for you and your family, you want to aim for pH balance. Distilled water is too acidic and alkaline water is too alkaline. The ideal pH of your water should be between 6.5 to 7.5, which is neutral.

Mountain spring water is in this ideal range. It is some of the healthiest water on the planet because it is “living water”. Living water, like “living food is in its raw, natural state the way nature intended.

One of the main reasons I am such an advocate for eating raw, organic vegetables is because these “living foods” contain biophotons, small units of light stored by all organic organisms, including you.

Gravity-fed spring water is alive in much the same way. When you take this vital energy into your body, you are re-charging it with health and encouraging it to return to a whole and balanced state.

Now, when I mention mountain spring water, I don’t mean the two-gallon jugs you see sitting on your grocery store shelf. I’m talking about water you bottle yourself from a gravity-fed spring. There’s a great website called FindaSpring.com where you can find a natural spring in your area. The nearest one to me is in Birchover near Matlock here in Derbyshire. This is a great way to get back to nature and teach your children about health and the sources of clean water.

Health Benefits of Drinking Pure Water

I can’t say enough about the health benefits of drinking pure water. Here are only a few of the many health benefits you and your family will enjoy once you make the switch to pure water:

  • Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Properly digest food and absorb nutrients from food
  • Have healthy, glowing skin
  • Decrease muscle and joint inflammation
  • Have better circulation
  • Detoxify your body naturally

Article based on: http://www.mercola.com/article/water.htm

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